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What Is Die Steel?
Nov 06, 2017

What is die steel?

Die steel is used to create cold die, hot forging die, die casting mold steel. Mold is a major manufacturing tool for manufacturing parts in machinery manufacturing, radio instrumentation, motors, appliances and other industrial sectors. The quality of the mold directly affects the quality of the pressure processing technology, the precision of the product and the production cost. The quality and service life of the mold are mainly influenced by the mold material and the heat treatment, except for reasonable structural design and processing precision.


Die steel can be broadly divided into: cold-rolled die steel, hot-rolled die steel and plastic mold steel three categories for forging, stamping, cutting type, die-casting and so on. Due to the different uses of various molds and complicated working conditions, the steel for molds should have high hardness, strength, abrasion resistance, sufficient toughness and high hardenability and quenching according to the working conditions of the molds manufactured by the molds Hardness and other process properties. Due to the different uses and complex working conditions, the performance requirements of the mold steel are also different.

1, cold-rolled mold, including die, drawing die, drawing die, embossing mold, Roll mold, rolling plate, cold heading die and cold extrusion die. Cold work die steel, according to the working conditions with the manufacture, should have high hardness, strength, wear resistance, adequate toughness, and high hardenability, hardenability and other process performance. Alloy tool steel used for this type of application is generally high carbon alloy steel with a carbon content above 0.80%. Chromium is an important alloying element of this type of steel and its mass fraction is usually not more than 5%. But for some high wear resistance requirements, small deformation after quenching die steel, the highest chromium content of up to 13%, and in order to form a large number of carbides, steel carbon content is also high, up to 2.0% ~ 2.3%. Cold work die steel has a high carbon content, and most of its structure belongs to hypereutectoid steel or ledeburite. Commonly used types of steel are high-carbon low-alloy steel, high-carbon high-chromium steel, chromium-molybdenum steel, medium-carbon chromium tungsten steel.

2, hot-rolled mold is divided into several main types of forging, die forging, extrusion and die-casting, including hot forging die, die forging press, stamping die, hot extrusion die and metal die-casting mold. Hot deformation mold in addition to work to withstand the huge mechanical stress, but also to withstand repeated heating and cooling effect, causing a great thermal stress. In addition to high-temperature die steel should have high hardness, strength, red hardness, wear resistance and toughness, but also should have good high temperature strength, thermal fatigue stability, thermal conductivity and corrosion resistance, in addition also requires a higher Hardenability, to ensure that the entire cross-section with a consistent mechanical properties. For die-cast steels, there should also be no surface cracking, repeated heating and cooling, and the ability to withstand the impact and erosion of liquid metal flow. This type of steel is generally carbon steel, carbon mass fraction of 0.30% ~ 0.60%, belonging to hypoeutectoid steel, but also part of the steel due to join more of the alloying elements (such as tungsten, molybdenum, vanadium, etc.) and become eutectoid or Metallurgical steel. Commonly used steel chromium-manganese steel, chrome-nickel steel, chromium tungsten steel.

3, plastic mold, including thermoplastic molds and thermosetting plastic mold. Plastic mold steel requires a certain degree of strength, hardness, wear resistance, thermal stability and corrosion resistance and other properties. In addition, also requires good processability, such as small deformation heat treatment, good processing performance, good corrosion resistance, good grinding and polishing performance, good welding performance, high roughness, good thermal conductivity and working conditions such as size and shape stability . Under normal circumstances, the injection molding or extrusion die can be used hot die steel; thermosetting and require high wear resistance, high strength die can be used cold die steel.


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