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Domestic Mold Steel Market Current Situation And Prospects
Nov 10, 2017

Domestic Mold Steel Market Current Situation and Prospects

Mold is the basis of industrial production technology and equipment, is a measure of a country's manufacturing level is an important symbol. 75% of the rough industrial products parts, 50% of the finished parts from the mold, the vast majority of plastic products from the mold. As a basic industry of the national economy, molds cover a wide range of industries including machinery, automobiles, light industry, electronics, chemicals, metallurgy, building materials and other industries. With the adjustment of the global economic and industrial structure, traditional industries such as manufacturing industry are becoming increasingly saturated in the European and American markets. Labor costs have been rising year by year, profits have dropped, and the focus has shifted to developing countries. China's labor force is rich in resources, cheap advantage gradually revealed that the current state encourages the expansion of domestic demand, the domestic mold potential market is great, decided that China will inevitably develop into a large mold manufacturing country, the use of the world's die output value increased significantly, and ultimately Will significantly increase the amount of mold steel, mold steel production technology has also continued to increase.

A domestic mold market analysis

1.1 Introduction to the domestic mold industry The main use of the domestic mold steel market are: Automotive Motorcycle Industry: The automotive industry is the main use of mold industry. The mold market of all kinds of automobiles, agricultural vehicles, motorcycles and engineering vehicles accounts for about one-third of the total market, mainly cold-working molds, plastic molds and hot-working molds. Among them, the automobile is mainly large and medium-sized stamping dies and plastic molds and casting molds and precision forging molds. Most of the motorcycles are small and medium-sized cold-punching dies, die-casting molds and plastic molds. Mold steel required for this market accounts for about 1/4 of the total. Household appliances industry: At present, China's output of household appliances has leapt to the forefront of the world, more than 10 years the rapid development of refrigerators, washing machines, air conditioners, microwave ovens and other products have a large number of exports. Need to produce a large number of household appliances plastic molds and Die, especially large plastic mold. Mold steel required for this market accounts for about 20% of the total. Electronic and communications equipment industry: computers, mobile phones, electronic equipment and other electronic communications industry equipment require a large number of molds, especially as the sunrise industry's IT each year doubled the rapid development of precision stamping dies and precision plastic mold, accounting for the mold market About 20%. Building materials industry: the real estate industry needs a large number of building plastic profiles, steel doors and windows, PVC: water pipe production, requires a large number of large and medium-sized high-quality life molds, especially plastic and aluminum extrusion profiles. Extruded aluminum alloy extrusion die consume about 50% of the total amount of hot die steel annually.

Plastic products industry: With the development of industry, plastic products have also been a large number of applications, including industrial plastic will give priority to support our priority industries, high-quality mirror plastic mold steel, mirror-resistant plastic mold steel and high hardness plastic mold steel demand Very large amount. Other industries: Electrical machinery, instruments, meters and other mechanical and electrical industries, require a large number of high-precision high-life cold die and high-performance plastic molds and die-casting molds.

With the rapid development of mold industry in our country, the amount of mold steel is increasing, especially the proportion of high-tech molds with large size, precision, complexity and long life increase year by year. At present, the domestic mold steel has reached about 600,000 tons Domestic mold steel can not fully meet the requirements, but a large number of annual imports of foreign mold steel (estimated annual imports of about 60,000 to 80,000 tons), currently about 40% of the High-grade molds must be imported from abroad. And this part of the imported mold steel prices 3-5 times higher than similar domestic products. As the country's overall production equipment and technology improve, we can foresee the mold steel is entering a period of rapid development in the near future, will meet the needs of the domestic mold industry.

1.2. Introduction of domestic mold steel Die steel can be roughly divided into cold work die steel, hot work die steel and plastic mold steel in accordance with the purpose, for forging, stamping, cutting type, die-casting and so on. Due to different purposes, the working conditions are complex, so the performance requirements of the mold steel is also different. Cold work die steel: Cold work die steel is mainly used to manufacture the cold state of the workpiece for compression molding. Such as: cold punching die, cold stamping die, cold drawing mold, imprint mold, cold extrusion die, screw pressing mold and powder pressing mold. Cold work die steel range, from a variety of carbon tool steel, alloy tool steel, high-speed tool steel to high-speed tool steel and powder high-alloy die steel. Hot work die steel: hot work die steel is mainly used to manufacture the mold under high temperature conditions of the workpiece pressure processing. Such as: hot forging die, hot extrusion die, die-casting mold, hot upsetting die. Commonly used hot work die steel are: the high carbon content of Cr, W, Mo, V and other alloying elements alloy die steel; special requirements for hot work die steel, and sometimes high alloy austenitic heat-resistant die steel . Plastic mold steel: Due to the large variety of plastic, the requirements of plastic products vary greatly, and the plastic mold manufacturing materials also made a variety of different performance requirements. Therefore, many industrialized countries have formed a wide range of plastic mold steel series. Including carbon structural steel, carburized plastic mold steel, pre-hardened plastic mold steel, age-hardening plastic mold steel, corrosion-resistant plastic mold steel, easy-cutting plastic mold steel, the overall hardened plastic mold steel, martensitic Aging steel and mirror and polishing with plastic mold steel. Among them, 3Cr2Mo (P20), 3Cr2NiMo (718) two pre-hardened steel plastic mold steel due to the wide range of applications, the rapid increase in domestic demand, is the more representative of the two kinds of mold steel.

Their main features are:

• Pre-hard state delivery, generally do not need heat treatment, but sometimes need to be changed forging, die forging after forging must be heat treatment.

• Pre-heat treatment usually uses spheroidizing annealing, the purpose is to eliminate the forging stress, to obtain a uniform spherical pearlite structure, reduce the hardness, improve the plasticity, improve the die billet machinability or cold extrusion properties.

Pre-hardened process is simple, the majority of quenched and tempered, tempered sorbite obtained after tempering. Temperature tempering temperature range is very wide to meet the various working requirements of the mold.

In short, due to the different uses of various molds, complex working conditions, the performance requirements of the mold steel is also different. Mold steel according to the working conditions of the molds it is made of, should have high hardness, strength, wear resistance, sufficient toughness, and high hardenability, hardenability and other process performance.

1.3 China's mold steel market prospects With the development of China's industry, the rapid increase in demand for mold steel. In many products in the machinery industry, the mold is listed as a key support for the development of the industry, greatly promoted the development of the mold industry. Although the production of die steel in China has been on the rise in recent years, the manufacturing level of die steel has made great strides. However, there is still a big gap between the alloy die steel and other international advanced standards such as the United States, Japan, France and Switzerland. For example, The main specifications of the steel are large-size forged modules (250 to 800 mm in thickness) x (600 to 1200 mm in width) and large-sized mold flat bars (30 to 300 mm in thickness × (400 to 1,500 mm in width) Baosteel and a handful of steel mills can produce. In addition, the manufacture of high-grade molds, especially the home appliance industry requires large-scale high-quality P20, 718 pre-hardened plastic mold steel modules, the domestic can not be fully scheduled, durability delivery, making the appliance industry rely heavily on the import of die steel. According to incomplete statistics, China's die industry imports about 60,000 to 80,000 tons of mold steel each year. The price of imported die steel is very expensive, generally 3 to 5 times of domestic steel. It can be considered that for the import of mold steel, except for a few products still need to be further developed, most of our products have the ability to develop, but how to ensure high quality, high performance and quality of domestic mold steel, the stability of performance, shorten The delivery cycle is the domestic mold steel manufacturers need to focus on the issue.

 2. Mold steel domestic manufacturers In order to meet the development needs of the mold industry, the national production of mold steel is also increasing year by year. At present, according to incomplete statistics, there are about 14 steel mills in China that produce mold steel. The main domestic plastic mold steel production plants are mainly Baosteel, Qilu Special Steel and Northeast Special Steel. However, in recent years, Long steel production is also rapidly growing. The domestic production of steel with a lot of mold steel, but the plant die steel production is generally very low, mainly due to the high content of die steel generally alloy, alloy cost prices are generally high, and end-user acceptable price Rising space is smaller, resulting in smaller profit margins. Thus to a certain extent, inhibited the steel production capacity; Also from the front can be seen, the production process of steel mold more difficult, strict requirements on product quality, especially large, sophisticated, complex and long-life mold, commonly used Vacuum degassing, electroslag remelting and other processes to ensure quality. There are few domestic production plants fully grasp the production process, coupled with the domestic mold steel varieties, specifications, quality and delivery cycle can not meet the needs, in particular, need a large number of household appliances industry P20, 718 and other types of pre-hardened plastic mold steel, domestic Metallurgical plants can only supply partially small and medium size steel; while pre-hardened large modules can not be supplied domestically. These factors seriously affect the quality of plastic mold, service life and delivery cycle. Lead to high-grade plastic mold steel is still heavily dependent on imports.

3. Market distribution, consumer characteristics

3.1 Market Distribution

The current market demand for mold steel is mainly concentrated in East China, North China and South China. East China largest capacity, accounting for the national total. 50% ~ 55% or so, the annual demand exceeds 300,000 tons, of which only about 80,000 tons of P20,718 demand. North China, South China region demand is also above 100,000 tons. Compared with developed areas in the coastal areas, the socialization and specialization of the manufacturing industries in the southwestern region are relatively backward, and the industrial chain is still weak. The scale of the mold design, manufacturing and processing industries is very small and the overall level is generally not high. The products are concentrated in the middle and low molds market, Demand for mold steel is not large. The annual demand in Southwest China is about 15,000 to 20,000 tons. 3.2 Characteristics of the domestic consumer market • Die steel grade is generally not high, especially the high quality, high performance die steel varieties are few. For the manufacture of large, sophisticated, complex, high-life mold needs, vigorously develop pre-hardened steel abroad, while the domestic steel basically remain in the annealing stage, or hot-rolled state availability, and the lead time is longer, it is difficult to meet the mold making The actual needs of the industry, which is one of the important reasons for the large import of die steel in China's home appliance industry. • Die steel is less specialized. The quality of steel, poor performance stability, poor quality appearance. China Die Steel dispersed in dozens of enterprises, most of the production process equipment manufacturers do not support, backward production technology, especially the back of the process, processing equipment behind, restricting the quality of domestic mold steel and improve performance. • Die steel supply cycle is very short, usually about 30 days. Design and preparation of not more than 10 days, making die steel delivery deadline of only 5 days. Mold manufacturing enterprises and the basic is the implementation of "zero inventory" management model, how much mold, how much to buy mold steel. This puts forward a very high demand for coordination of production and marketing of steel mills in order to meet the supply demand of the end users. • Mold steel supply and marketing channels need to be smooth. Mold manufacturing and more for the single or small batch production, and the required varieties of steel, more specifications, fewer quantities, demand for timely supply of the industry characteristics, and the production of large quantities of steel production there is a big conflict. Foreign steel stores can solve retail problems at any time. In recent years, some agents, steel shops and other intermediate sales segments have emerged in China. However, there is still a gap between the awareness and level of service in sales of mold steel and the advanced level abroad, affecting the popularization and application of domestic mold steel. For example: foreign users of die steel, most of the production side of the engineer to guide the user. In recent years, our country also appeared some agents, steel stores and other intermediate sales links, but the sales service awareness and level of the gap from the user's request is still quite large, resulting in many users out of high prices to buy foreign steel mold Abnormal phenomenon Imported steel prices higher than the domestic price of 3 to 5 times the phenomenon, reflecting the quality of our die steel and services are still backward.

4. The problems of domestic mold steel production enterprises • The production of high-grade products is still lack of market support High standard mold steel, especially high standard plastic mold steel requires corrosion resistance, wear resistance, etching and other properties of many domestic steel mills, especially Special steel production plant has reached a high quality smelting equipment and smelting level as a technical guarantee, can produce a certain level of die steel, but a considerable part of the domestic mold manufacturing enterprises by the funds, venues, technology, information exchange and many other factors A considerable part of them is relying on the traditional equipment and hand-made processing to complete it, making it difficult to form a scale and producing only medium and low-grade molds. It is very difficult to introduce advanced molding technology and advanced molding equipment. This has led to increased competition in the mold market. Some mold companies in order to survive, at the expense of each other to reduce price competition, and low prices will inevitably affect the quality of products, which also hit the domestic steel mills to produce high-end mold steel initiative.

• Lack of follow-up finishing equipment and processes

According to market research, plastic mold steel requires a high finish surface, high thermal conductivity, machinability, polishing and other good machinability. At present, the appearance of die steel and dimensional accuracy of the direction of development is the fine material. In the case of metallurgical plants, it is to provide brokers or mold manufacturers with products of high dimensional accuracy. For rolling material, by using high-precision rolling mill and precision sizing machines and other means to improve the accuracy of the rolling material. For the more demanding mold steels, on request, cold-drawn, centerless grinding, plane milling, surface grinding, peeling, roller light and other processes, to provide high precision, decarburization-free concentrate. Some major Japanese mold steel production plants, through the cold-processing of fine steel production accounted for about 60% of the total, foreign mold steel production plant, in order to improve the accuracy of materials, generally more than 90% are peeling material. Many domestic steel mills annealing, quenching, ultrasonography, peeling and other follow-up finishing process has not reached a high level, the internal, the surface can not fully meet the production needs of the mold factory.

• Varieties, production specifications less than half a century, the rapid development of the plastics industry, with the development of the plastics industry, the rapid increase in the number of plastic mold steel, the variety is also very diverse. In recent years, research and introduction to achieve nearly 50 varieties. In recent years, in order to meet the needs of the development of the mold industry and face fierce market competition, many domestic and foreign mills have developed many high-performance mold steels and have continuously introduced new steel grades to the market (such as Japan PMF, DKA -F, NAK80, Germany 40CrMnM07, Baosteel B20-B40, etc.). Through the upgrading of products, in order to consolidate the leading position in the international and domestic market competition. In the mold steel varieties, the domestic mold steel manufacturing plant and the gap between the international manufacturers is still large; In addition due to conditions, some high-performance die steel varieties temporarily unable to produce. Increasing the current mold, mold forming parts are also increasingly large. In order to improve the production efficiency, the mold making factory has a multi-cavity (up to a few hundred cavities now), so there is a great demand for the large-size die steel with the thickness of 200 or more. Due to the compression ratio of plastic mold steel, plastic mold steels with a thickness of more than 200 mm are generally produced by the forging process. A well-known domestic enterprise that represents a higher level of domestic production can not guarantee performance for some mold steels with a thickness of 200 mm or more. Narrow domestic specifications, can not fully meet market demand.

 • Inadequate national policies to support the backwardness of the domestic mold industry, but also with the relevant government departments on the importance of mold in the modern manufacturing industry is not enough understanding. Since 1997, the state has given some supportive policies to the professional mold manufacturers that have reached a certain scale. However, the enterprises that can enjoy are limited after all. The mold industry urgently needs a long-term supportive policy. At present, the state implements a value-added tax system on the products of the industrial sector. The raw materials for the molds are less invested and the prices are low. However, the selling prices of the finished molds are very high, and the value-added rate is staggering. Therefore, the VAT paid is also very high. According to the statistics of the State Administration of Taxation, the actual tax burden on the mold industry is 5.07 percentage points higher than that of other industries. However, the mold saves manpower, technology, equipment and other aspects of the need for high input, coupled with a single piece of production, the form of bulk, therefore, the net mold high, the real profit received is not high. Therefore, the government support for the mold industry is very important.

5. Future Outlook of China Mold Steel Industry

 • Should vigorously develop P20,718 and other key varieties of plastic mold steel At present, the appliance, plastic industry needs a large number of P20, 718 and other types of pre-hardened plastic mold steel, while the domestic metallurgical plant can only partially supply pre-hardened large modules, the country is still In short supply situation. Domestic P20, 718 domestic demand has 180,000 ~ 200,000 tons, the market demand is great. In addition, from the mold technology development, China's plastic mold is the mold industry in the fastest-growing, the highest degree of marketization and the level of technology with foreign models closest to the mold. Therefore, plastic mold steel is a noteworthy, promising new areas of mold steel, of which the development of pre-hardened more worthy of attention. Therefore, the current domestic mold steel should focus on the development of P20, 718 as the representative varieties of pre-hardened plastic mold steel, as the entry point into the mold steel market.

 • Strengthening quality control and improving enterprise products The enterprises in the advanced countries both at home and abroad adopt international standards as the minimum implementation standards and they implement or implement "enterprise standards" or "internal control standards" higher than international standards. Sweden UDDEHOLM companies, Austria Bohler companies and domestic Baosteel have very strict corporate standards. Such as Baosteel P20, 718 and other varieties of very strict internal control standards, much higher than the quality of the book on the composition and performance. The future domestic mold steel production plant standards should be as much as possible to the international and domestic advanced standards move closer to formulate strict standards in the production of enterprises and strengthen internal quality control so as to promote the level of production of steel mold to enhance product quality.

 • Realize the professional production of mold steel Focus on the development trend of the domestic mold manufacturing industry and the needs of the mold market. In order to meet the special requirements of mold steel, pay close attention to the research and development of new varieties of mold steel with high precision, high toughness, corrosion resistance and high quality H13, H10, H11, 3-4Crl3 and the like. At the same time, increase investment, equipped with advanced technology and technology production lines, strengthen scientific research and research, through research and development to improve the existing mold steel product quality, expand the variety specifications. For the next step to develop part of cold, hot work die steel products, the formation of the supply of die steel supporting production capacity.

The first easy after the difficult, the plastic products industry as the key target market At present, domestic mold manufacturers have different requirements on the mold steel, a kind of lower production of plastic products manufacturers, they are less demanding on the quality of the mold, the main Consider how to reduce production costs, the main factor in the choice of mold steel is the price level, and the other is a number of more than the formal and large mold manufacturers and household appliances enterprises, due to the higher product quality, mold surface quality and The inherent quality of the higher requirements, so they choose the main consideration is the quality of die steel rather than the price, in order to ensure the quality of the mold (mainly surface and intrinsic quality), mostly using expensive imported die steel, such as Sweden, Germany , Japan and other products. Due to the equipment and technical conditions, most domestic steel mills temporarily do not have the conditions for producing high-grade plastic mold steel slab / flat steel with excellent mechanical properties, good processability and surface quality, and it is suggested that some plastic molds be selected Mechanical properties of steel requirements, the surface quality is not very strict lower-level plastic mold steel processing industries, such as agriculture, construction, toys, daily necessities, lighting manufacturers as the target market. To be improved after the level of technology and equipment, and then choose to produce some high-level appliances and other mold manufacturing industry as a sales target.

• Play a bridge role as distributor and clear the distribution channels Due to the variety of plastic products and their different performances, and the different requirements of plastic products such as size, shape, precision, surface roughness and production lot, The requirements are also different. Many domestic steel mills do not meet the requirements of user specifications, varieties, short cycles, and quick settlement requirements. It is very difficult to directly deal with the end-user sales and there are many restrictions. We must take full advantage of the role of the reservoir dealer, played a zero for the whole, the whole effect of zero in the mold steel manufacturers and mold manufacturers to establish a bridge between the channels to clear the flow of mold steel distribution channels. Sales through the dealer, is conducive to mass production and sales of steel mills die steel, while reducing inventory, timely return of funds and reduce market risk.

 • The use of new processes to reduce production costs and reduce the threshold of the use of mold steel Research and development with advanced equipment and technology, advanced metallurgical methods and processes, such as full continuous casting + furnace refining + vacuum treatment instead of electroslag remelting, Continuous rolling process instead of forging forging process step by step to improve the level of mold manufacturing, maintaining the original composition of die steel and performance, based on the continuous reduction of the production cost of die steel to promote the use of die steel to improve market competitiveness. At present, there are already special steel mills in China that have started to use P20 die steel produced by the continuous casting process and successfully achieved sales, laying a foundation for enterprises to reduce production costs and reduce the use of mold steel. Summary: In the past 40 years, China's mold industry is accelerating the pace of development, the demand for die steel is gradually expanding, of which the demand for plastic mold steel growth more rapidly. At present, plastic has become one of the four major raw materials (ie, cement, plastic, steel and timber), ranking the second in terms of demand. Today, the plastics industry has become known as the "sunrise industry," and plastics must be molded into molds to be valuable products. Therefore, the plastic mold steel and its deep-processed products have very good prospects and a vast market, especially high-alloy plastic mold steel products and products. Calculated according to the current development growth rate, China's use of mold steel in 2010 is expected to reach the scale of 1 million tons. Currently in China die steel, plastic mold steel accounts for about 50%, is expected to demand further growth. In the long run, the rapid development of the domestic plastic mold steel market for all mold steel manufacturers to expand this new variety has created favorable conditions for the recent domestic steel market turmoil, but also for the domestic mold steel production companies eliminate backward technology , Enhance the competitive strength, improve the product grade, and provide a rare opportunity for the transformation from ordinary steel to high value-added steel. For example, some domestic steel mills have taken the lead in adopting the "converter outside the furnace refining a full continuous casting" process of plastic mold steel production, not only to optimize the industrial structure and further broaden the variety has a positive meaning, and will promote domestic steel mills to enhance steel production technology.

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