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Die Steel In The Role Of Various Alloying Elements
Nov 20, 2017

Die steel in the role of various alloying elements


Alloying elements, most commonly silicon, manganese, chromium, nickel, molybdenum, tungsten, vanadium, titanium, niobium, boron, aluminum, etc .; the following will explain their role in the steel:

1, the role of silicon in steel:

(1) to increase the strength of solid solution in steel and cold work hardening to reduce the toughness and ductility of steel.

(2) Silicon can significantly increase the elastic limit, yield limit and yield ratio of steel, which is a general spring steel.

(3) Corrosion resistance. Silicon mass fraction of 15% to 20% of high silicon cast iron, is a good acid-resistant material. Silicon-containing steel heated in an oxidizing atmosphere, the surface will form a layer of SiO2 film, thereby enhancing the oxidation resistance of steel at high temperature.

(4) Disadvantages: deterioration of the weldability of steel.

2, the role of manganese in steel:

(1) manganese increases the hardenability of steel.

(2) Manganese has a significant effect on improving the strength of low-carbon and medium-carbon pearlite steels.

(3) manganese on steel high temperature transient strength has increased.

The main disadvantage of manganese steel is:

(1) higher manganese, there is more obvious temper brittleness phenomenon.

(2) Manganese has the effect of promoting grain growth, so manganese steel is more sensitive to overheating. In the heat treatment process, care must be taken. This disadvantage can be overcome by adding refined grain elements such as molybdenum, vanadium titanium and the like.

(3) When the mass fraction of manganese exceeds 1%, the weldability of the steel deteriorates.

(4) Manganese will reduce the corrosion resistance of steel.

3, the role of chromium in steel:

(1) Chromium can improve the strength and hardness of steel.

(2) Chromium can improve the high-temperature mechanical properties of steel.

(3) the steel has good corrosion resistance and oxidation resistance.

(4) to prevent graphitization.

(5) improve hardenability.

Disadvantages: ① chromium is significantly improve the brittle transition temperature of steel; ② chromium can promote the temper brittleness of steel.

4, the role of nickel in steel:

(1) can increase the strength of steel without significantly reducing its toughness.

(2) Nickel can reduce the brittle transition temperature of steel, which can improve the low temperature toughness of steel.

(3) to improve the workability and weldability of steel.

(4) Nickel can improve the corrosion resistance of steel, not only acid, but also alkali and atmospheric corrosion.

5, the role of molybdenum in steel:

(1) Molybdenum has a solid solution strengthening effect on ferrite.

(2) improve the heat strength of steel

(3) the role of anti-hydrogen erosion.

(4) improve the hardenability of steel.

Disadvantages: The main adverse effect of molybdenum is its tendency to graphitize low-alloy molybdenum steels.

6, the role of tungsten in steel:

(1) increase the intensity.

(2) to improve the high temperature strength of steel.

(3) improve the hydrogen resistance of steel.

(4) is to make the steel hot and hard; therefore tungsten is the main alloying element in high-speed tool steels.

7, the role of vanadium in steel:

(1) hot and strong.

(2) Vanadium can significantly improve the welding performance of ordinary low-carbon low-alloy steel.

8, the role of titanium in steel:

(1) Titanium can improve the hot strength of steel, improve the creep resistance of steel and high temperature lasting strength.

(2) and can improve the stability of steel in high temperature and pressure hydrogen. So that steel under high pressure hydrogen stability of up to 600 ℃ above, in pearlite low alloy steel, titanium can prevent the molybdenum steel at high temperatures graphitization. Therefore, titanium is one of the most important alloying elements in hot steels used in high temperature components of boilers.

9, the role of niobium in steel:

(1) Niobium and carbon, nitrogen, oxygen have strong binding force, and with the formation of the corresponding extremely stable compounds, which can refine the grain, reduce the steel overheating sensitivity and temper brittleness.

(2) has excellent hydrogen resistance.

(3) niobium can improve the thermal strength of steel.

10, the role of boron in steel;

(1) improve the hardenability of steel.

(2) to improve the high temperature strength of steel. Strengthen the role of grain boundaries.

11, the role of aluminum in steel:

(1) It is used as deoxidizing and denitrifying agent in steelmaking to refine the grains, restrain the aging of mild steel, improve the toughness of steel at low temperature, especially reduce the brittle transition temperature of steel;

(2) improve the oxidation resistance of steel. Had on iron and aluminum oxidation resistance carried out more research; 4% AI can change the structure of the oxide layer, adding 6% A1 can make the steel below 980C with oxidation resistance. When aluminum and chromium used in combination, its oxidation resistance has been greatly enhanced. For example, alloys containing 50% to 55% iron, 30% to 35% aluminum, and 10% to 15% aluminum still have fairly good oxidation resistance at 1400C. Due to this role of aluminum, aluminum is often added as heat-resistant steel to alloy elements in recent years.

(3) In addition, aluminum can also improve the corrosion resistance to hydrogen sulfide and V2O5.

Disadvantages: ① deoxidation, such as excessive use of aluminum, will promote the graphitization of steel. ② when the aluminum is high. Its high temperature strength and toughness is low.


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